Creator: George Lucas


The Indiana Jones franchise is an entertainment franchise, based on the historical adventures of Dr. Henry "Indiana" Jones, a fictional archaeologist. It began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. A prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, followed in 1984 and the sequel Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989. In 1992, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles began airing on television. A fourth film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, was released in 2008. The series was created by George Lucas; the films star Harrison Ford and were directed by Steven Spielberg.


In addition, Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics earned the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, in addition to a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, and twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books. Numerous video games about Indiana Jones have been released since 1982.




  Indiana Jones




Directed by


Steven Spielberg




Produced by


Raiders of the Lost Ark

 Kingdom of the Crystal Skull:

 Frank Marshall

 Temple of Doom

 Last Crusade:

 Robert Watts




Screenplay by


Raiders of the Lost Ark:

 Lawrence Kasdan

 Temple of Doom:

 Willard Huyck

 Gloria Katz

 Last Crusade:

 Jeffrey Boam

 Kingdom of the Crystal Skull:

 David Koepp




Story by


Raiders of the Lost Ark:

 George Lucas

 Philip Kaufman

 Temple of Doom:

 George Lucas

 Last Crusade:

 George Lucas

 Menno Meyjes

 Kingdom of the Crystal Skull:

 George Lucas

 Jeff Nathanson






Harrison Ford




Music by


John Williams






Raiders of the Lost Ark

 Temple of Doom

 Last Crusade:

 Douglas Slocombe

 Kingdom of the Crystal Skull:

 Janusz Kaminski




Editing by


Michael Kahn










Distributed by


Paramount Pictures






United States










Box office





[edit] Overview


Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) is assigned by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis do, to make them invincible like the Israelites in the Old Testament, who revered it as the dwelling place of God. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's nemesis René Belloq (Paul Freeman). With the help of his old flame Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis manage to steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, they are all killed gruesomely by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark back to America, where it is stored in a secretive government warehouse.


Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) is set in 1935, a year before Raiders of the Lost Ark. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and his twelve-year-old sidekick Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India where they come across a village whose children have been kidnapped. A destructive cult led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) have also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, and rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature.


Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) opens in 1912 where a thirteen-year-old Indiana (River Phoenix) attempts to recover an ornamental cross belonging to Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a task which he finally completes in 1938. Indiana along with his friend Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It turns out Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic.


Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) is set in 1957, making it nineteen years since The Last Crusade, and thus acknowledging the real-life passing of years between films. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust back into his old adventuring. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for the crystal skull. Indy's journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the forest of the Amazon in Brazil. In the film. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac (Ray Winstone), is introduced to a greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), who turns out to be his son (real name revealed to be Henry Jones III), and is reunited with his old flame Marion Ravenwood.


[edit] Development


In 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of Indiana Smith.[1] Like Star Wars, it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the serials of the 1930s and 1940s.[2] Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and came up with the Ark of the Covenant as the plot device. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to write The Outlaw Josey Wales.[3] In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the enormous success of Star Wars. Friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, holidaying from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film. Lucas then told him of an idea "better than James Bond", explaining the plot of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware",[4] though he had the character's surname changed to "Jones".[2] Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five films about Indiana.[4]


Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective break-ups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he didn't want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but wound up creating the Sankara Stones.[5] He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Indian culture.[6] The major scenes that were dropped from Raiders of the Lost Ark were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase.[2] For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected it as too ethereal, but then came up with telling a father-son story. He thought, "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son."[7]


Following the 1989 release of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device.[8] Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas "No way am I being in a Steve Spielberg movie like that."[9] Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in Close Encounters of the Third Kind and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, resisted it. Lucas came up with a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994.[8] Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After he learned that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, he decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers.[10] Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired Last Crusade writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, Independence Day was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film. Lucas decided to focus on the Star Wars prequels.


In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next Indiana Jones film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project.[11] The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period.[12] Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using the crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found those artifacts as fascinating as the Ark,[13] and had intended to feature them for a Young Indiana Jones episode before the show's cancellation.[8] M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot,[11] but he was overwhelmed writing a sequel to a film he loved like Raiders, and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus.[14] Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached.


Frank Darabont, who wrote various Young Indiana Jones episodes, was hired to write in May 2002.[15] His script, entitled Indiana Jones and the City of Gods,[8] was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones.[16] Spielberg conceived the idea because of real life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who protected Nazi war criminals.[8] Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself.[8] Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing Schindler's List,[17] while Ford felt "We plum[b] wore the Nazis out."[9] Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but gave them a 13-year old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to The Lost World: Jurassic Park.


Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled The Atomic Ants. David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle Destroyer of Worlds, based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, as Spielberg found it more inviting a title and actually named the plot device. Koepp wanted to make Mutt into a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in The Wild One; "he needs to be what IndianaJones' father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand". Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue".


[edit] Future


The introduction of Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf) in Kingdom of the Crystal Skull

has led to speculation that he will take over the franchise from Ford.[20] In an

interview with IGN, "Spielberg indicated that LaBeouf has to make multiple

Transformers movies before he can move over and take on the fedora and bullwhip

of Indiana Jones."[21] The actor himself said, "Am I into it? Who wouldn't be? I

don't think that's reality. It's a fun rumor."[22] Ford said he would return for

a fifth film if it doesn't take another twenty years to develop,[23] while

Spielberg responded it would happen "only if you [the audience] want more".[24]

In an interview with Time, when asked about passing the fedora to Shia in the

next Indy movie, Ford said, "What are you talking about? It's mine. I would love

to do another Indiana Jones movie. George Lucas is working on an idea now. Shia

can get his own hat. I earned that hat."[25]


George Lucas made another suggestion that there would be a fifth film. While at

the 2008 Cannes Film Festival, he revealed his idea "to make Shia LaBeouf the

lead character next time and have Harrison Ford come back like Sean Connery did

in the last movie [Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade]." At the time Last

Crusade was filmed, Connery was still only 58. Lucas also said that age need not

be a factor, as Ford was "65 and did everything in this movie [Crystal Skull].

The old chemistry is there, and it's not like he's an old man. He's incredibly

agile; he looks even better than he did 20 years ago, if you ask me."[26] In

August 2008, Lucas was researching potential plot devices, and stated Spielberg

was more open to the idea of the fifth film.[27] He also changed his mind about

continuing the series with a spin-off, joking "Indiana Jones is Indiana Jones.

Harrison Ford is Indiana Jones. If it was Mutt Williams it would be Mutt

Williams and the Search for Elvis or something."[28] Two months later, Ford

stated that he would not return if the fifth film was an animated film like The

Clone Wars, because "I'd hate to see it reduced in any way from the movies that

we have done and the way we have done them." He also called Lucas' concept for

the fifth film "crazy but great".[29]


When asked how being married to Marion Ravenwood and having a son would affect

the character in a fifth film, Ford only replied "He's seen something. Remember

those are the only witness to what he's seen. That's kind of interesting."[30]

In January 2010, Ford said, "I think it would be interesting to advance the

understanding of the character, as we always have had that ambition throughout

the series. I think it would be interesting to deepen the relationship between

he and his son and play on that relationship. ... It's full of opportunity. The

series is full of opportunity."[31]


The possibility of Indiana Jones 5 continued to be discussed through 2009 and

2010. Reports speculated in June 2009 that the fifth installment would start

filming in 2011 and involved a plot that revolved around the Bermuda

Triangle,[32] although these rumors were later clarified as "completely false"

by Frank Marshall on his Twitter page.[33] Speaking to BBC journalist Lizo

Mzimba in June 2009, LaBeouf confirmed that "Steven [Spielberg] just said that

he cracked the story on it [the fifth film], I think they're gearing that

up."[34] Lucas stated he was working on the film as of December 2009.[35] Most

recently, in November 2010, Ford said that he and Spielberg are waiting for

Lucas to present an idea to them.[36] In March 2011, The Deadbolt interviewed

Karen Allen and she was asked about the fifth film's status. "What I know is

that there’s a story that they like," said Allen, "which is a huge step forward.

I heard this about six months ago, that they have a story that they like and

they’re working on it."







Indiana Jones character





Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost Ark in 1981




First appearance


Raiders of the Lost Ark




Created by



George Lucas

 Steven Spielberg

 Born: July 1, 1899














 Henri Defense

 Mungo Kidogo

 Captain Dynamite, Scourge of the Kaiser








 Associate Dean

 College Professor















Henry Walton Jones, Sr. (father, deceased)

 Anna Mary Jones (mother, deceased)

 Susie Jones (sister, deceased)[6]






Deirdre Campbell Jones (1926)

 Marion Ravenwood Jones (1957–present)






Henry Walton "Mutt" Jones III

 Unnamed daughter[8]






Pete (uncle)[6]

 Fred (uncle)[9]

 Grace Jones (aunt)[9]

 Frank (cousin)[9]

 Caroline (granddaughter, probably via his daughter)[6]

 Henry Walton "Spike" Jones IV (grandson, probably via Mutt)[10]

 Lucy (granddaughter, probably via his daughter)[8]

 Annie Jones (great-granddaughter, probably via Mutt)[6]

 Henry Walton "Harry" Jones V (great-grandson, probably via Mutt)[6]















Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr.[12] is a title character and the

protagonist of the Indiana Jones franchise. George Lucas and Steven Spielberg

created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s film serials. The

character first appeared in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, to be

followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1984, Indiana Jones and the

Last Crusade in 1989, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles from 1992 to 1996, and

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008.


Particularly notable facets of the character include his iconic look (bullwhip,

fedora, and leather jacket), sense of humor, deep knowledge of many ancient

civilizations and languages, and fear of snakes.


Indiana Jones remains one of cinema's most revered movie characters. In 2003, he

was ranked as the second greatest movie hero of all time by the American Film

Institute.[14] He was also named the 6th Greatest Movie Character by Empire

magazine.[15] Entertainment Weekly ranked Indy 2nd on their list of The All-Time

Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture.[16] Premiere magazine also placed Indy at number

7 on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.[17] Since his

first appearance in Raiders of the Lost Ark, he has become a worldwide star. On

their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, ranked Indy

at number 10.[18] In 2010, he ranked #2 on Time Magazine's list of The Greatest

Fictional Characters of All Time, surpassed only by Sherlock Holmes.[citation



Indiana Jones is from Princeton, NJ and was first introduced in the 1981 film

Raiders of the Lost Ark, set in 1936. The character is presented as an

adventurer reminiscent of the 1930s film serial treasure hunters and pulp action

heroes, whose research is funded by Marshall College (named after producer Frank

Marshall)[19] a fictional college in Connecticut, where he is a professor of

archaeology. In this first adventure, he is pitted against the Nazis, traveling

the world to prevent them from recovering the Ark of the Covenant (see also

Biblical archaeology). He is aided by Marion Ravenwood and Sallah. The Nazis are

led by Jones's archrival, a Nazi-sympathizing French archaeologist named René

Belloq, and Arnold Toht, a sinister Gestapo agent.


The 1984 prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, set in 1935, took the

character into a more horror-oriented story, skipping his legitimate teaching

job and globe trotting, and taking place almost entirely in India. This time,

Jones attempts to recover children and the Sankara stones from the bloodthirsty

Thuggee cult. He is aided by ShortyShort Round and accompanied by Willie Scott

(Kate Capshaw).


The third film, 1989's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, set in 1938, returned

to the formula of the original, reintroducing characters such as Sallah and

Marcus Brody, a scene from Professor Jones's classroom (he now teaches at

Barnett College), the globe trotting element of multiple locations, and the

return of the infamous Nazi mystics, this time trying to find the Holy Grail.

The film's introduction, set in 1912, provided some back story to the character,

specifically the origin of his fear of snakes, his use of a bullwhip, the scar

on his chin, and his hat; the film's epilogue also reveals that "Indiana" is not

Jones's first name, but a nickname he took from the family dog. The film was a

buddy movie of sorts, teaming Jones with his father, often to comical effect.

Although Lucas intended at the time to do five films, this ended up being the

last for over eighteen years, as Lucas could not think of a good plot element to

drive the next installment.[20]


The 2008 film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, became the

latest film in the series. Set in 1957, 19 years after the third film, it pits

an older, wiser Indiana Jones against Soviet agents bent on harnessing the power

of a crystal skull associated with extraterrestrials discovered in South America

by his former colleague Harold Oxley (John Hurt). He is aided in his adventure

by an old lover, Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen), and her son—a young greaser

named Henry "Mutt" Williams (Shia LaBeouf), later revealed to be his biological

child, Henry Jones III. There were rumors that LaBeouf will take over the Indy

franchise.[21] This film also reveals that Jones was recruited by the Office of

Strategic Services (a predecessor department to the CIA) during World War II,

attaining the rank of Colonel in the United States Army and running covert

operations with MI6 agent George McHale on the Soviet Union.







[edit] Character description and formation


In his role as a college professor of archaeology, Henry Jones Jr. is scholarly

and learned in a tweed suit, lecturing on ancient civilizations. In Indiana

Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, it is revealed that Jones is

influenced by the Marxist Archaeologist, Vere Gordon Childe, whose qualified

acceptance of cultural diffusionism theory he propounds. Ironically, though

Childe loathes fieldwork,[27] Indy goes on to say, "If you want to be a good

archaeologist, you gotta get out of the library." This is in tongue-in-cheek

contrast to the previous film's comment, "Seventy percent of all archaeology is

done in the library."


However, at the opportunity to recover important artifacts, Dr. Jones transforms

into "Indiana," a "non-superhero superhero" image he has concocted for

himself.[28] Producer Frank Marshall said, "Indy [is] a fallible character. He

makes mistakes and gets hurt. [...] That's the other thing people like: He's a

real character, not a character with superpowers."[29] Spielberg said there "was

the willingness to allow our leading man to get hurt and to express his pain and

to get his mad out and to take pratfalls and sometimes be the butt of his own

jokes. I mean, Indiana Jones is not a perfect hero, and his imperfections, I

think, make the audience feel that, with a little more exercise and a little

more courage, they could be just like him."[30] According to Spielberg

biographer Douglas Brode, Indiana created his heroic figure so as to escape the

dullness of teaching at a school. Both of Indiana's personas reject one another

in philosophy, creating a duality.[28] Harrison Ford said the fun of playing the

character was because Indiana is both a romantic and a cynic,[31] while scholars

have analyzed Indiana as having traits of a lone wolf; a man on a quest; a noble

treasure hunter; a hardboiled detective; a human superhero; and an American



Like many characters in his films, Jones has some autobiographical elements of

Spielberg. Indiana lacks a proper father figure because of his strained

relationship with his father, Henry Senior. His own contained anger is

misdirected at the likes of Professor Abner Ravenwood, his mentor at the

University of Chicago, leading to a strained relationship with Marion

Ravenwood.[28] The teenage Indiana bases his own look on a figure from the

prologue of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, after being given his hat.[33]

Marcus Brody acts as Indiana's positive role model at the college.[33] Indiana's

own insecurities are made worse by the absence of his mother.[34] In Indiana

Jones and the Temple of Doom, the character becomes the father in a temporary

family unit with Willie Scott and Short Round to survive. Indiana is rescued

from the evil of Kali by Short Round's dedication. Indiana also saves many

children from slavery.[34]


Because of Indiana's strained relationship with his father, who was absent much

of Indiana's youth searching for the Holy Grail, the character does not pursue

the more spiritual aspects of the cultures he studies. Indiana uses his

knowledge of Shiva to ultimately defeat Mola Ram.[34] In Raiders, however, he is

wise enough to close his eyes in the presence of God in the Ark of the Covenant.

By contrast, his rival Rene Belloq dies horribly for having the audacity to try

to communicate directly with God.[28]


In Crusade's prologue, Indiana's intentions are revealed as prosocial, as he

believes artifacts "belong in a museum." In the film's climax, Indiana undergoes

"literal" tests of faith to retrieve the Grail and save his father's life. He

also remembers Jesus as a historical figure – a humble carpenter – rather than

an exalted figure when he recognizes the simple nature and tarnished appearance

of the real Grail amongst a large assortment of much more ornately decorated

ones. Henry Senior rescues his son from falling to his death when reaching for

the fallen Grail, telling him to "let it go," overcoming his mercenary

nature.[33] The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles explains how Indiana becomes

solitary and less idealistic after fighting in World War I.[35] In Indiana Jones

and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Jones is older and wiser, whereas his

sidekicks Mutt and Mac are youthfully arrogant and greedy, respectively.[36]